Pro Evolution

Pro Evolution
Pro Evolution

In 1859, Charles Darwin’s (1859) work On the Origin of Species brought the new theories of evolution by natural selection to a wide audience, leading to the overwhelming acceptance of evolution among scientists. Douglas Futuyma (2005), in his book Evolution, defines the term (evolution) as the change in the inherited traits of a population of organisms through successive generations. After a population splits into smaller groups, these groups evolve independently and may eventually diversify into new species. Within the understanding of natural selection and evolution, the human being (as an animal) is driven by the base instinct to propagate its genome. This means that not only is the survival of the individual important, but also the survival of the genome itself.

In The Selfish Gene by Richard Dawkins (1976), the contention is made that the genes that get passed on are the ones whose consequences serve their own implicit interests (to continue being replicated), but not only those of the individual. An individual is expected to evolve to maximize its inclusive fitness, which is the number of copies of its genes passed on globally (rather than by a particular individual). As a result, populations will tend towards an evolutionarily stable strategy.

This gene centered view of evolution then states that all human instincts are driven by one universal purpose. That is the genes within an individual are motivated by the singular purpose to propel themselves into the future. However, not only are the individual alleles driven to move on, but also the genes within phenotypic similarity to that of the individual. This explains affinity for family, friends and group members. It can also partly explain altruistic behavior.

Some behavioral biologist state that all living organisms are driven by three base drives. These are: to reproduce, to consume sustenance, and to maintain stable territory. The textbook Biology; Eighth Edition by Peter Raven and George Johnson (2008) gives the following examples: a male songbird may sing in the breeding season because of the increased presence of testosterone; natural selection favors individuals whose foraging behavior is as energetically efficient as possible. Animals tend to feed on plants and other animals that maximize their net energy expenditure per unit of energy gained; In many animal species, the home range of several individuals overlaps in time and space, but each individual defends a portion of its home range and uses it exclusively. These are proximate causation examples. However, ultimate causation can be seen in that continuation of the individual and species is the prime motivator.

It can easily be argued that activities such as dating, eating junk food, and desiring to buy an expensive home all have a connection to natural selection, and as such have a DNA significance. Richard Dawkins (1976) in The Selfish Gene describes the genes of an individual as voyagers on a ship that is perpetually sinking. These voyagers are constantly trying to secure passage into the future through another vessel. All of the base drives earlier referenced have evolved due to their beneficial nature. Even activities that can have a negative, even detrimental effect on the individual are woven into the given genome for one specific purpose.

Based on the information and theories herein presented survival is the primal instinct to the human being as an animal. As it relates to biology, survival of the individual, as well survival of the genome and species can be viewed as an indicator in much of human behavior. In this way the human being is connected to all other members of the Kingdom Animalia. Understanding our base drives and their significance in relation to science can help as a starting point in not allowing them to overwhelm and dictate behavior. Ultimately, you have the ability to control your own actions. If you want a different result, take a different course of action.

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pro evolution?

all my life i was a fifa football player all my life then i got an xbox 360 and i had my first experience of pro evo the 2007 version and i have to admit i was hooked i thought it was the best football game ever.now yesterday i got pro evo 2008 and i have to admit the jury is still out for me…

wat do other people think i was just interested in knowing a few other opinions

this game is worse than FIFA 2007 and FIFA 2008. The controls are all hard. When i try to lob it, it always is looking to go out of touch. This is annoying!

Pro Evolution Soccer 2008 PES Bug Inamoto Dives on Ground


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